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All are A.C. electrical motors, and are driven by alternating current, for e.g. the synchronous motor, which always runs at synchronous speed. Here the rotor is an electro - magnet which is magnetically locked with stator rotating magnetic field and rotates with it. The speed of these machines are varied by varying the frequency (f) and number of poles (P), as Ns = 120 f/P.
In another type of AC motor where rotating magnetic field cuts the rotor conductors, hence circulating current induced in these short circuited rotor conductors. Due to interaction of the magnetic field and these circulating currents the rotor starts rotates and continues its rotation. This is induction motor which is also known as asynchronous motor runs at a speed lesser than synchronous speed, and the rotating torque, and speed is governed by varying the slip which gives the difference between synchronous speed Ns, and rotor speed Nr
It runs governing the principal of EMF induction due to varying flux density, hence the name induction machine comes. Single phase induction motor like a 3 phase, runs by the principal EMF of induction due to flux, but the only difference is, it runs on single phase supply and its starting methods are governed by two well established theories, namely the Double Revolving field theory and the Cross field theory.
Apart from the four basic types of motor mentioned above, there are several types Of special electrical motors like Linear Induction motor(LIM),Stepper motor, Servo motor etc with special features that has been developed according to the needs of the industry or for a particular gadget like the use of hysteresis motor in hand watches because of its compactness.